Intestinal health is one of the key factors required for the growth and production of turkeys. Histomoniasis (blackhead disease), caused by a protozoan parasite, Histomonas meleagridis, is a reemerging threat to the turkey industry. Increased incidences of histomoniasis have been reported in recent years due to withdrawal of antihistomonas treatments. H. meleagridis affects ceca and causes cecal inflammation and necrosis. H. meleagridis migrates from ceca to the liver and causes liver necrosis, resulting in high mortalities. Ironically, field outbreaks of histomoniasis are not always associated with high mortalities, while low mortalities have also been documented. There are several exacerbating factors associated with high mortality rates in histomoniasis outbreaks, with concurrent infection being one of them. Recurrent histomoniasis outbreaks in a newly constructed barn were documented, and concurrent infection of H. meleagridis and hemorrhagic enteritis virus was confirmed. Currently, neither commercial vaccines nor prophylactic or therapeutic solutions are available to combat histomoniasis. However, there are treatments, vaccines, and solutions to minimize or prevent concurrent infections in turkeys. In addition to implementing biosecurity measures, measures to prevent concurrent infections are critical steps that the turkey industry can follow to reduce mortality rates and minimize the production and economic losses associated with histomoniasis outbreaks.

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