Mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium was observed in a parental loft of 70 meat-breed pigeons. It was decided to undertake treatment as the birds represented a substantial value to the owner. A multi-agent therapy using azithromycin, marbofloxacin and ethambutol was administered. After four months of therapy, the desired results were not obtained. At the end of treatment, the birds were in poor general condition with leukocytosis, and after clutching other two-year-old and older ones were euthanised. Overall, post-mortem lesions were found in 17 out of 49 autopsied individuals. Slide agglutination tests with a M. avium subsp. avium lysate was conducted in all examined pigeons. In 28 pigeons, blood count was conducted once a month during therapy, while in 24 pigeons, a tuberculin sensitivity test was conducted before the planned euthanasia. The tuberculin sensitivity test did not prove useful in the diagnosis of ill individuals. Slide agglutination yielded positive results in only four birds, all of which also had post-mortem lesions. Blood count in a large number of cases allowed distinguishing between ill and healthy individuals, which was used for subsequent selection. The comparison of cultured strains with the (CCG) 4-based PCR method showed the variation of Mycobacterium avium isolates up to a maximum of 30%.

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