Over a four-month period, a Michigan zoo had thirty-two budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, from their flock die. Whole animals or formalin-fixed tissues were submitted to Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnosis. Avian gastric yeast infection, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster was diagnosed in seven birds. There was atrophy of breast musculature and no subcutaneous or coelomic fat stores in six necropsied birds. Only two birds had proventricular dilatation grossly. Histologic examination of the proventriculus of all seven birds revealed abundant 3 X 50 μm septate, parallel-walled, nonbranching yeast organisms morphologically consistent with Macrorhabdus ornithogaster. Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in three budgerigars, two of which were necropsied. Both necropsied birds had hepatomegaly and one also had splenomegaly. No acid-fast bacilli were found in the livers of either bird but were found in splenic macrophages of the bird with splenomegaly and in the intestine of the other bird. Mycobacterium was cultured from the enlarged spleen and identified by DNA sequence as Mycobacterium genavense . Pulmonary granulomas with acid-fast bacilli were found in the bird submitted as fixed tissues. None of the budgerigars had a dual infection. Remainder of the budgerigars died from hepatitis, nephrosis, oviductal prolapse, exclusion from food and water by flock mates, and tumors.
Avian gastric yeast, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster and Mycobacterium genavense infections in a zoo budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) flock
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Richard M Fulton, Rinosh Mani; Avian gastric yeast, Macrorhabdus ornithogaster and Mycobacterium genavense infections in a zoo budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) flock. Avian Dis 2020; doi: https://doi.org/10.1637/aviandiseases-D-20-00045
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