Several serotypes of non-host-specific or paratyphoid Salmonella have been linked with contamination of poultry meat, and eggs resulting in foodborne outbreaks in humans. Vaccination of poultry against paratyphoid Salmonella is a frequent strategy used to reduce the levels of infection and transmission which ultimately can lead to lower rates of human infections. Live vaccines have been developed and used in poultry immediately after hatching as a result of their ability to colonize the gut, stimulate a mucosal immune response, induce a competitive inhibitory effect against homologous wild strains, and reduce colonization and excretion of Salmonella . Furthermore, vaccines can competitively exclude some heterologous strains of Salmonella from colonizing the gastrointestinal tract when young poultry are immunologically immature. In addition, various studies have suggested that booster vaccination with live vaccines a few weeks after initial vaccination are essential to increase the level of protection and achieve better cross-protective immunity. Vaccination of breeders, broilers, layers, and turkeys with modified live Salmonella vaccines is a common intervention that has become an important component in the poultry company’s multistep prevention programs to meet increasingly demanding customer and regulatory food safety requirements.  Both live and inactivated vaccines play a critical role in a comprehensive control program for chicken and turkey breeders and commercial layers. This review examines the response and protection conferred by live modified vaccines against non-host-specific Salmonella that can be considered for the design and implementation of vaccination strategies in poultry.

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