SUMMARY Avian erythroblastosis (erythroid leukosis) was detected in a 78-day-old Japanese native chicken. At necropsy, the liver was enlarged and diffusely dark red in color. Moderate splenomegaly was observed. Histologically, round-to-polygonal tumor cells were observed only in the blood vessels of the liver and other organs. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections to characterize tumor cells. Tumor cells, as well as normal erythrocytes as positive controls, were consistently positive for IHC using the commercially available anti-human hemoglobin antibody. Exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) -B and endogenous ALV-E genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction, although ultrastructural observation revealed no viral particles associated with tumor cells. Results suggest that the commercial anti-human hemoglobin antibody used in the study cross-react to chicken erythrocytes on FFPE sections by IHC, and it also can be used for definitive diagnosis of the spontaneous case of avian erythroblastosis in chickens.

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