The aim of this study is to identify and characterize virus isolates (which are named for Bacgiang Agriculture and Forestry University [BAFU]) from diseased Cherry Valley duck and mule duck flocks and investigate the damage caused by a novel parvovirus-related virus (DuPV) to tissues and organs, including the brain, cerebellum, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and spinal cord. The results of phylogenetic analysis show that DuPV-BAFU evolved from a goose lineage and duck parvoviruses rather than from Muscovy duck parvoviruses. In the genetic lineages, DuPVs were identified from the DuPV samples analyzed, and DuPV-BAFU was found to be closely clustered with two known goose origin parvoviruses (GPVa2006 and GPV1995) and a duck GPVs. Finally, structural modeling revealed that DuPV-BAFU and the closely related viruses GPVa2006 and GPV1995 possessed identical clusters of receptor-interacting amino acid residues in the VP3 protein, a major determinant of viral receptor binding and host specificity. Significantly, these three viruses differed from DuPVs, Muscovy duck parvoviruses, and other goose parvoviruses at these positions. These results also demonstrated that DuPV-BAFU represents a new variant of goose-origin parvovirus that currently circulates in ducklings and causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome, as noted in the previous reports in Europe, Taiwan, and China. This new finding highlights the need for future surveillance of DuPV-BAFU in waterfowl in order to gain a better understanding of both the evolution and the biology of this emerging parvovirus in waterfowl.

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