Dietary, environmental, and hereditary causes were reported as causative agents of angel wing syndrome in waterfowl. Since 2017, several Muscovy duck flocks at Behira governorate were found to exhibit this syndrome associated with the clinical symptoms of goose parvovirus (GPV) infection. Four strains of goose parvovirus named HS1–HS4 were isolated and identified from diseased ducks at some of these flocks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of these strains together and within a distinct monophyletic group in relation to GPV strains of Derzsy's disease and short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS). Nucleotide identities with goose parvovirus strain B of Derzsy's disease were 95.7%–96.6%, and with the strain JS1603 of SBDS they were 96.8%–97.4%. However, nucleotide identities with Muscovy duck parvovirus strain FM were 74.1%–74.6%. The disease was reproduced experimentally via oral-route artificial infection with HS1 strain, and both clinical symptoms of goose parvovirus and angel wing syndrome were observed in the artificially infected Muscovy ducks, but with less severity in geese. This study demonstrated clear evidence for induction of angel wing syndrome, at least partially, with GPV infection in Muscovy duck. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first work to mention a viral cause of angel wing syndrome in waterfowl.

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