During an intensive survey of fresh water macroinvertebrates from vernal and permanent inland waters of Qatar, at the wet seasons of 2016 and 2017, seven species of crustaceans (one cladoceran, one notostaracan, two anostracans, two diplostracans, and one mysid) are reported. The findings of Cladocera is the water flea Daphnia magna; the Notostraca are represented by the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus; the Anostraca included 2 fairy shrimps Branchipus schaefferi and Streptocephalus simplex; the Diplostraca are represented by the clam shrimps Leptestheria sp and Eocyzicus sp and the mysid shrimp Taphromysis sp. Except for the tadpole shrimp, all the remaining species are here recorded for the first time in Qatar. The diversity of fresh water Crustacea especially large branchiopods, reflects that they play an important ecological role in the inland water ecosystem of the state. Their distribution and economic importance are also discussed.

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