This research analyses the Rapid Penang bus operation and network in detail, using a system of indicators derived from surveys and detailed information supplied by the operator. The research approach employed could also be used as a template for bus service reviews elsewhere, where operational data is scarce due to a lack of smartcard electronic ticket information. The analyses concentrated on the bus fleet information, level of service, Rapid Penang timetables and survey data, Rapid Penang ridership data and survey data. Measures for reliability and integrating bus services are concentrated on the physical structure of different levels of integration, including physical integration, network, ticket, fares and information system. Finally, the research yields several recommendations to improve reliability, convenience, accessibility, coordinated physical integration and frequent services and a reasonable fare on bus services.

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