The remnants of Cilician fir forests in Syria are currently considered as relic ecosystems sheltering many endemics endangered and rare species. However, plant diversity has rarely been studied in the Cilician fir forests in Syria. In this work, trees species diversity was assessed based on tree inventories in 46 randomly selected inventory quadrats with 400 m2, which divided into five stands to represent the whole Cilician fir forest within the Cedar and Cilician Fir Reserve in Latakia Governorate. Plant diversity and similarity were estimated using Species richness, the Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson’s index of dominance, and the evenness index. A total of 25 plant species belonging to 19 genera and 13 families were recorded from a total area of 978 ha. Rosaceae was the dominant family in the forest with 6 species, followed by Fagaceae with 5 species. The dominant tree species is Abies Cilicica L. with 46.4% of relative coverage rate, followed by Carpinus orientalis Mill. with 5.9% of relative coverage rate and Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. with 5.7% of relative coverage rate. The northwestern slope with 17 species had the highest species abundance, as is indicated by the largest value of the Shannon-Weiner index 3.19 bits and the smallest value of Simpson’s index 0.21. By contrast, the southwestern slope with 10.6 species is found to be less species abundant, which showed the smallest value of the Shannon–Weiner index at 2.36 bits and the largest value of Simpson’s index at 0.33. This work offered a framework for understanding the plant diversity in Latakia Governorate and laid a foundation for sustainable management of the reserves of cedar and fir.

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