This article examines factors influencing varying decisions made on livelihood strategies amongst coastal fishermen in Pulau Pangkor, in the state of Perak in Peninsular Malaysia. Two livelihood strategies - Livelihood Intensification and Livelihood Diversification - were chosen as the key dependent variables. The seven independent variables were social demographic, trend of income, coping strategies, risk associated with fishing activities, willingness to venture, willingness to learn and sustainable income. Since there were more than one dependent variables, and using a newly-developed framework, Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to assess the relationship between each independent variable and dependent variables. The findings of this research demonstrate that (1) education level, level of income versus expenses, trend of output, coping strategies adopted, risk associated with fishing activities, and sustainable income are significant factors affecting fishermen’s choice of livelihood intensification strategies, while (2) education level, level of income versus expenses, trend of output, and willingness to learn are significant factors affecting their choice of livelihood diversification strategies. The findings then were used to build the Livelihood Strategies Determinant Framework (LSDF), which is more appropriate for the coastal fishermen of Pulau Pangkor.

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