The objective of this study was to define specific breathing patterns and examine the effects these patterns have on indicators of heart rate variability. Perceived accounts of ease and comfort in relation to the patterned breathing applications also were assessed. A breathing pattern is the within-cycle respiratory timing or the ratio between the inspiration and expiration of breath, including the pause time at the top of the inspiration and at the bottom of the expiration. The within-participants analysis (N  =  14), including the subjective components, revealed significant differences and illuminated the strength of the effects the varied breathing patterns had on each participant.

You do not currently have access to this content.