Heart rate variability (HRV) is generated by the interaction of multiple regulatory mechanisms that operate on different time scales. This article examines the regulation of the heart, the meaning of HRV, Thayer and Lane's neurovisceral integration model, the sources of HRV, HRV frequency and time domain measurements, Porges's polyvagal theory, and resonance frequency breathing. The medical implications of HRV biofeedback for cardiovascular rehabilitation and inflammatory disorders are considered.

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