Over one million American grandmothers raise grandchildren, and many experience stress that may be alleviated by biofeedback. This pilot trial of 20 grandmothers used a pretest-posttest design with repeated measures to test the effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on perceived stress, negative emotions, and depressive cognitions. Significant decreases in stress, negative emotions, and depressive cognitions were found. Biofeedback is thus potentially effective for reducing stress and depressive thoughts and feelings in grandmothers raising grandchildren, and the intervention warrants further testing.

You do not currently have access to this content.