This paper reviews the history of heart rate variability biofeedback. Interest in the method has evolved from several directions, eventually mutually influencing each other, and often through workshops provided by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. My own work was influenced by long-term use of the technique in Russia, and from research by Evgeny Vaschillo using transfer function analysis among heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure, to show how the technique stimulates the baroreflex; also by Richard Gevirtz in frequent workshops given together. Work at the HeartMath Institute independently evolved from experience with music relaxation and “heartfelt emotion,” and other research evolved from American psychophysiological research. Brief descriptions of the development of interest and work in this field are provided by Richard Gevirtz, Rollin McCraty (HeartMath), Fredric Shaffer, and Robert Nolan, as well as myself.

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