Impairments that may result from a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion can be both severe and long-lasting. This article will list some of the common persisting symptoms that may occur and give a brief description of the neuropathological processes that can be triggered by TBI, including diffuse axonal injury and its effects on the mitochondrial Kreb's cycle and the production of adenosine triphosphate, the brain's source of energy. This is followed by a summary of a comprehensive assessment process that includes quantitative electroencephalography, evoked potentials, heart rate variability (HRV) measures, neuropsychological testing, and blood and urine analysis. Details concerning a neurophysiological approach to effective treatment are given. These include conventional single-channel neurofeedback (NFB), also called brain-computer interface training, low-resolution electromagnetic tomography z-score neurofeedback, HRV training, and counseling on diet, sleep, and exercise. The authors expand the discussion on their treatment approach to include a neuroanatomical explanation of why the practitioner should consider combining the NFB training with HRV training.

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