In the United States, more than one million grandmothers are raising their grandchildren, and this can be stressful, produce depressive symptoms, and adversely affect their quality of life. The pilot trial of 60 grandmothers reported here examined the effects of a cognitive behavioral intervention (resourcefulness training), biofeedback control training (focused on heart rate variability), and journaling on measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Comparative analysis revealed a decrease in stress with all three conditions; a decrease in depressive symptoms in the resourcefulness training group; and improved quality of life in the resourcefulness training and biofeedback groups.

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