Optimal functioning of the brain and mind is essential for good mental health and well-being. Unfortunately, disruptions in specific brain region function may arise for a variety of reasons, which include adverse genetic predispositions, poor nutrition, illness and cerebral accidents, developmental hormonal shifts, and negative life events resulting in overload and stress reactions. Fortunately, there are low-cost, easy-to-use, and effective electronic brain-stimulating technologies available today. These stimulation technologies include audiovisual entrainment (AVE) devices (e.g., light and sound machines), as well as electrostimulation technologies such as cranio-electro stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. The instruments are all designed to aid individuals with modulating their own cortical arousal levels, whether to regain lost functionality or to enhance outcomes such as improved social interactions, athletic performance, mathematical problem-solving, or creating new art and music. This article reviews a range of current techniques used for stimulating and modulating brain regions for positive gain.

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