Chronic pain has a significant impact on the quality of lives for millions of people. Because it is resistant to traditional medical intervention, the optimal approach to chronic pain management relies on a biopsychosocial understanding of health and treatment. To date, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been the treatment of choice. However, CBT's emphasis on active control can prove counterproductive because the cognitions, behaviors, and emotions related to pain are difficult to directly confront. More recently, CBT has begun to integrate mindfulness, shifting toward paradigms of accepting sensations rather than trying to change them. This is difficult for individuals with chronic pain, who frequently spend significant resources avoiding and trying to minimize sensations. Biofeedback can be a useful tool for shaping mindfulness because it allows a focus on an external signal that in fact reflects the internal process. Over time, individuals can learn to integrate mindfulness techniques in their daily life that minimize the influence of pain, allowing them to focus on other aspects of their lives.

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