In this article we attempt to take a few concepts that are coming from different fields and integrate them into a somewhat new understanding of biofeedback, interoceptive exposure, and breathing training. Let us begin with the concept of exposure: There is general agreement that exposure therapy is one of the leading methods in current cognitive behavioral therapy interventions. Exposure therapy takes a prominent place in international guidelines for the treatment of anxiety disorders (e.g., National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2011).

The exposure treatment that began in the late 1950s with systematic desensitization by Wolpe (1958, 1961), for a flooding treatment (Marks, 1975), and implosive therapy by Stampfl and Levis (1967) has been used in many ways over the years. It is essential to note that, though exposure originally was part of cognitive behavioral therapy, it soon...

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