It was encouraging to read Dr. Swingle's article, “Neurofeedback, Where Are We and Where Are We Going?” (2021, Biofeedback, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 59–70). Dr. Swingle believes that well-trained and well-informed providers are necessary in order to provide appropriate neurofeedback services. She notes that providers should be well informed about research, presumably applied research. We would like to elaborate that providers should be skilled in the critical assessment of research, including why different research designs are necessary to draw valid conclusions.

One disappointment in Dr. Swingle's otherwise excellent article is that she implies that double-blind randomized controlled trials are not necessary. She suggests that there are imperatives to perform double-blind controlled research that are spurred by the pharmaceutical industry, and she additionally discounts the use of placebo controls. She does not consider that research designs are not imperatives or laws, they are ways to reduce threats to validity, especially...

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