Protecting the global human population against COVID-19 depends on complex logistics and transportation of vaccines, often at unusually low, cryogenic temperatures. Moreover, malicious cybersecurity actors, both individuals and nation states, exist and have disrupted the vaccine supply chain.1,2 

In January 2021,a large U.S. healthcare system asked for help to protect its refrigeration systems from radiofrequency (RF)-based analog cybersecurity threats against the temperature sensors used in COVID-19 vaccine cold chain transportation and storage. It is well known in the security research community that intentional electromagnetic interference (EMI) can not only disrupt but also control the output of temperature sensors.3,4 

With the goal of assessing potential RF-based risks facing COVID-19 vaccine cold chain and deriving accessible methods for protection, the authors conducted experimental and theoretical analyses that led to the following lessons learned:

  1. The experiments confirmed...

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