We studied the structure of a population of Hydromedusa maximiliani associated with a stream in Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Núcleo Itutinga-Pilões, southeastern Brazil, between October 2004 and October 2005. Twenty-five individuals were captured, and a population size of 43.72 ± 23.7 individuals was estimated. This value is similar to that of the population of Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, another Atlantic forest reserve of southeastern Brazil. Males were recaptured more frequently than females, suggesting higher activity and/or greater movement of males.

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