In China, Hainan Island is a priority area for turtle conservation because of its biodiversity. Over the years, errors in turtle taxonomy and distribution have been made in the scientific literature, perpetuating into relevant laws and government documents and affecting conservation and management. In the present article, we describe the species of nonmarine turtles on Hainan Island, China, based on literature, museum specimens, and field surveys during the past 27 yrs. Historically, 23 nonmarine turtle species were recorded on Hainan Island. Among them, 9 species should be removed due to errors: 5 species are not naturally distributed on Hainan Island (Manouria impressa, Sacalia bealei, Cuora flavomarginata, Mauremys nigricans, and Mauremys reevesii), 3 are invalid hybrids (Ocadia philippeni, Sacalia pseudocellata, and Cuora serrata), and 1 is a synonym of another species (Mauremys megalocephala is a synonym of M. reevesii). In addition, of the 3 new species recorded from Hainan Island (Sacalia insulensis, Pelodiscus variegatus, and Pelodiscus parviformis), S. insulensis replaces Sacalia quadriocellata, P. variegatus is valid, and P. parviformis is likely an error. Therefore, there should be 12 nonmarine turtle species naturally found on Hainan Island: Platysternon megacephalum, Cuora galbinifrons, Cuora mouhotii, Cuora trifasciata, Geoemyda spengleri, Mauremys mutica, Mauremys sinensis, S. insulensis, Palea steindachneri, Pelochelys cantorii, Pelodiscus sinensis, and P. variegatus. Clarifying the presence and distribution of nonmarine turtle species will provide a reference for future research and practical guidance for conservation management on this turtle-rich island.

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