The global trade in tortoises of the genus Testudo was reviewed by using compiled import data from Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) for 1975–2005. A total of 58 importing and 112 exporting countries were recorded as being involved with the Testudo trade. Turkey, the former Soviet Union, the former Yugoslavia, Morocco, Uzbekistan, Russia, and Ukraine accounted for 81% of the recorded exports; whereas, the United Kingdom, Germany, and the United States dominated the import market with 67% of the individuals. Testudo horsfieldi accounted for 48% of the exports, followed by Testudo graeca (37%) and Testudo hermanni (13%). A total of 2,062,289 individuals were traded internationally, and of these, 99% were live animals. Of the animals from known sources, 67% were from the wild, and 16% were allegedly captive bred; the source of 70% of all declared trade animals was unknown.

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