We present results of an inwater research program focusing on basic ecology of juvenile hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the Cayman Islands. We made 206 captures of 135 hawksbills in Little Cayman and 103 captures of 97 hawksbills in Grand Cayman. The Cayman Islands aggregation demonstrated a broad size distribution (20.5–62.6 cm straight carapace length), slow growth rate (3.0 ± 0.9 cm/y), and multiple recaptures, suggesting long-term residence in some individuals. Demonstrated home range was small (mean distance from capture to recapture 545 ± 514 m, range 2–2080 m); although, an international tag return suggested a long-range developmental migration. Vertical features provided important habitat in Little Cayman, and larger turtles were generally captured in deeper waters. Behavior at sighting varied by habitat: resting, swimming, and feeding were observed in coral reef, reef wall, and hardbottom colonized by sponges and gorgonians, and resting was frequently observed in uncolonized hardbottom. Images obtained from underwater photographers show that hawksbills forage on sponges and occasionally on jellyfish. We observed an apparent commensal feeding relationship between hawksbills and 3 species of angelfish as well as aggressive interactions between hawksbills. We also documented causes of injury and mortality in the study area—including legal, illegal and incidental take, vessel collisions, hurricanes, and natural predation.