To facilitate the instructor's use of this case in the classroom, we have included the following: (1) related cases and research; (2) ideas to scale the case difficulty, and/or to change the case from class to class; (3) suggested solutions to the in-class learning lab (Nordstrom, Inc.); and (4) suggested solutions to the case assignment (Twitter, Inc.).

To our knowledge, this is the first teaching case to directly introduce students to nonfinancial measures (NFMs) and their related value relevance.1 However, existing commentaries (e.g., PCAOB 2010; Ames, Brazel, Jones, Rich, and Zimbelman 2012; PCAOB 2012, 2013) and academic research (e.g., Brazel, Jones, and Zimbelman 2009; Coram, Monroe, and Woodliff 2009; Curtis, Lundholm, and McVay 2014; Givoly, Li, Lourie, and Nekrasov 2017) already clearly support the examination of relationships between NFMs and financial measures to validate financial statement data. For example, Brazel...

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