The Southeast Asian cyprinid genus Henicorhynchus has a complicated taxonomic history due to morphological similarities with other genera and among species within the genus itself. Henicorhynchus and its constituent species are herein revised based on morphological examinations of over 1,000 specimens with a particular emphasis on oromandibular structures. Five species are now recognized in the genus. Henicorhynchus entmema and H. caudimaculatus are senior synonyms of H. lobatus and H. lineatus, respectively. Henicorhynchus caudiguttatus is removed from synonymy with H. caudimaculatus. A revised diagnosis of the South Asian cyprinid genus Gymnostomus, previously considered a senior synonym of Henicorhynchus, is also provided.

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