Odontesthes crossognathos, new species, is described from the Pelotas River basin, upper Uruguay River, southern Brazil. The new species is easily diagnosed by the possession of hypertrophied lips bearing numerous dermal papillae, a character absent in other species of the genus. The new species is also distinguished from congeners, except O. humensis, by having the upper jaw distinctly longer than the lower jaw and a subterminal mouth. These mouth morphology adaptations are probably related to the foraging behavior of the new species, which inhabits rivers with rapids and rocky bottoms in a high-altitude basin.

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