Sternopygus sabaji, new species, is described from the Atlantic drainages of the Guiana Shield region of South America using traditional methods of morphometrics and meristics and microcomputed tomography (μCT) scans for osteological analysis. The new species is diagnosed from all other species of Sternopygus by the lack of dentition on the anteroventral surface of the endopterygoid and by the possession of a wider mouth. It further differs from its congeners by the following combination of characters: reduced humeral spot with low-contrast and poorly defined margins, possession of a light-colored mid-lateral stripe along posterior portion of lateral line, possession of 1–3 dark saddle-like markings along dorsum of smaller individuals, and a relatively low precaudal vertebrae count. This work provides the first description of a species of Sternopygus that is endemic to the Guiana Shield, joining S. astrabes and S. macrurus in elevating the species richness of the clade in that region to three species and the total number of valid Sternopygus to ten species.

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