A new species of the scaleless black dragonfish genus Melanostomias is described based on a single specimen (180 mm SL) collected off the northern Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Brazil), western Tropical Atlantic. It differs from its congeners in having a unique barbel morphology, which ends in a bulb with two opposite slender terminal appendages. In addition, the occurrences of Melanostomias melanops and M. valdiviae are confirmed in Brazilian waters based on examination of new material. An overview analysis of the distribution and meristic variation of the species within the genus is also provided.
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