Anolis in the eastern Caribbean islands are hosts to three species of malaria parasite (Plasmodium). Although the parasites are widespread on the islands, little is known about their effects on infected lizards. Presented here is an inventory of some costs suffered by Anolis sabanus, the endemic solitary anole of Saba, Netherlands Antilles, when infected with Plasmodium azurophilum, Plasmodium floridense, and an undescribed species of Plasmodium. Parasitemia (parasite density in the blood) for most infections was low for all three Saban parasites. Blood cell composition (percent of immature erythrocytes) and blood hemoglobin were altered by infection (severity varied depending on species of parasite). Not affected by infection were body temperature, proportion of lizards with broken tails, perching location, foraging success, male-male interactions in experimental manipulations, and body color or symmetry in body color. Overall, the three malaria parasites of Saban anoles have lower virulence than other lizard malaria parasites studied (one temperate and two tropical). Theory on the evolution of parasite virulence suggests transmission biology of the parasite may differ for the Saban parasites compared to the other studied species.

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