In this paper, we present information on the natural history, reproductive and developmental strategies of the canopy treefrog Phrynohyas resinifictrix. Phrynohyas resinifictrix is a widespread Amazonian species breeding exclusively in water-filled treeholes in terra-firme rain forests. Females laid relatively large, floating egg masses in the treeholes. Gut content analyses indicated that tadpoles are generalists and predominantly macrophageous, basing their diet on detritus and conspecific fertilized eggs of younger cohorts. Tadpole guts were found to contain up to 62 intact eggs. This cannibalistic interaction is presumably of major importance for the completion of the larval stage and may result in depletion of entire egg complements. Strong site fidelity, interference competition for treeholes by territorial males, continuous use of treeholes year after year, repeated oviposition in treeholes, and temporal constancy in density of calling males are consistent with the hypotheses that adequate treeholes are a limiting resource for P. resinifictrix populations, or that location of unoccupied treeholes in the rain-forest canopy involves substantial risk or energetic costs.