Fifty Nerodia sipedon living along two kilometers of an urban stream in northeastern Pennsylvania were radio-tracked over three activity seasons, yielding more than 2520 relocations. Half the stream length is urbanized, flowing through a city park at the head of the study area and an industrial area at the downstream end; the half between is relatively natural, flowing through a conservation corridor. Individual snakes exhibited high site fidelity. For 82% of relocations, snakes were within a one-meter radius of places they had previously occupied, most often using exactly the same hole, rock, branch, or cover object. Snakes were found to have moved to a different site at 27% of relocations. When snakes moved, they returned to previously occupied places 56% of the time. Females exhibited significantly greater site fidelity than males, and snakes occupying the urban half of the study site exhibited significantly greater site fidelity than snakes found in the natural half. Individuals varied greatly in the amount of space they utilized. Snakes had a mean minimum convex polygon (MCP) activity area of 1.13 ha. Snakes appeared to use the stream to travel between locations separated by more than 100 meters. Original MCPs overestimated space use by including large terrestrial areas that were never occupied by and were unsuitable to snakes. Fixed kernel methods underestimated space use by producing multiple small, disjunct contours. Both methods often largely or completely excluded the stream. To address these problems, we provide additional estimates of space use that sum the MCPs encompassing all of a snake's locations within 100 meters of each other and add the area of stream connecting the most upstream and downstream locations.

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