A new genus and species of anglerfish, Dibrachichthys melanurus, of the antennarioid family Tetrabrachiidae, is described on the basis of 42 specimens collected in near-shore coastal waters of Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia, and the Aru Islands, southeastern Indonesia. It differs most strikingly from its sister species, Tetrabrachium ocellatum, the only previously described tetrabrachiid, in having the pectoral fin entire, rather than having the rays divided into two distinct sections, a feature that was heretofore diagnostic for the family. The new taxon is diagnosed, described, and compared osteologically with its sister taxon using high-resolution, X-ray computed tomography.

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