Congo River basin catfishes previously identified as Doumea alula (Amphiliidae, Doumeinae) were found to include three species that belong not to the genus Doumea but are, instead, the sister-group to a clade formed by all remaining Doumeinae. The species are assigned to a new genus, Congoglanis. Characters delimiting the Doumeinae and the clade consisting of all members of the subfamily except Congoglanis are detailed. Congoglanis alula is distributed throughout much of the Congo River basin; C. inga, new species, is known only from the lower Congo River in the vicinity of Inga Rapids; and C. sagitta, new species, occurs in the Lualaba River basin of Zambia in the southeastern portion of the Congo River system.

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