Eupemphix fuscomaculatus Steindachner, 1864 was described on the basis of a single specimen collected at Caiçara, Mato Grosso, Brazil. This species, currently included in the genus Pleurodema, experienced a confusing taxonomic history and is supposedly known only from the holotype and seven specimens from Río Apa, Paraguay, collected by Alfredo Borelli in 1893–1894. Examination of Steindachner's holotype and Borelli's specimens revealed that they are not conspecific, E. fuscomaculatus is a junior synonym of Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861 “1860”), and the specimens from Río Apa, Paraguay, could not be distinguished by their morphology or ploidy either from Pleurodema bibroni or P. kriegi, and are referred here as Pleurodema bibroni based on ecological considerations. Contrary to a recent proposal, the presence of vomerine teeth is not considered diagnostic for the genus Pleurodema, as they are absent in seven of the 13 species of Pleurodema examined. In addition, we propose to amend the type locality of P. biligonigerus to the surroundings of La Paz, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina.