Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli (1658-1730) was a natural scientist and soldier of remarkable and idiosyncratic accomplishment. His first book reported observations and experiments that he carried out during and shortly after his one-year visit to Istanbul during 1679 and 1680. This work is recognized by oceanographers because it contains the first description of a simple laboratory-scale hydrological experiment to show how differences in the density of two water masses lead to two-layer flow. The range of observations and experiments that Marsigli made during that year, however, went well beyond this experiment, and are poorly known: he measured currents using the first example of a paddle-wheel current meter; he determined the water density in the Mediterranean and Black Sea; he estimated the depth of the Bosporus undercurrent; he made detailed meteorological observations and described the effect of weather on current and water levels; he described seasonal migrations of fish to and from the Black Sea, and illustrated the internal anatomy of a mollusk. We present here a complete English translation of Observations and set Marsigli's results in their historical as well as the modern context of the oceanography of the Bosporus region.
Osservazioni Intorno al Bosforo Tracio Overo Canale di Constantinopoli Rappresentate in Lettera Alla Sacra Real Maestá Cristina Regina di Svezia da Luigi Ferdinando Marsilii, 1681: First English Translation, with Notes
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Bruno Soffientino, Michael Pilson; Osservazioni Intorno al Bosforo Tracio Overo Canale di Constantinopoli Rappresentate in Lettera Alla Sacra Real Maestá Cristina Regina di Svezia da Luigi Ferdinando Marsilii, 1681: First English Translation, with Notes. Earth Sciences History 1 January 2009; 28 (1): 57–83. doi: https://doi.org/10.17704/eshi.28.1.m24qw2611176j35w
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