This article describes the confrontation between fixist and mobilistic ideas in the USSR in the twentieth century. The history of discovery of the Urals thrust-nappe structure and the creation of the thrust-nappe theory are outlined. The fundamentals of the thrust-nappe theory are considered. These fundamentals allow for the explanation of geological processes and phenomena from the standpoint of mobilism. The geologic processes of interest include orogenesis, folding, magmatism, metamorphism and the formation of mineral deposits such as oil, gas, metal ores, coal and others.

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