This research serves as the first-known compilation of accounts of early Hawaiians using volcanic heat. Western explorers in the 1800s wrote about native Hawaiians near Kīlauea Volcano using volcanic heat for cooking and bathing. They cooked their food wrapped in leaves underground or above a steam crack at Sulphur Banks, Kīlauea Iki, and the Nāpau Crater Trail. Early Hawaiians bathed in the warm waters of Waiwelawela for health. To confirm the presence of volcanic heat, this study used geothermal resource maps by the Hawai‘i Play Fairway project. According to a probability map for volcanic heat, the areas where Hawaiians used volcanic heat have a probability of volcanic heat of 0.8 to 1.0. On a map with temperatures of water wells, water wells close to where Hawaiians used volcanic heat have elevated temperatures. Historically, the areas where Hawaiians used volcanic heat experienced volcanic steam release, volcanic eruptions, and lava flows.

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