This paper is focused on the meteorite collection that belonged to the Italian naturalist and geologist Teodoro Monticelli (1759–1845). Today he is mainly remembered as both the author of books and essays on the volcanic activity of Mount Vesuvius and as the owner of a mineralogical cabinet of more than 16,000 specimens. Monticelli’s scientific activity as a meteorite collector is, however, largely forgotten. This contribution presents for the first time the meteorite collection that belonged to Teodoro Monticelli and is now preserved at the Royal Mineralogical Museum of Naples. We reconstruct the history of the collection and argue that it represents an exceptional example of historical heritage. We also highlight the potential of the collection as a scientific research tool.