Iran is home to some of the world’s earliest civilizations. The Ashkanian dynasty (550–330 BCE) unified Iran as a superpower empire. It was the largest empire yet seen and the first world empire where the Great Cyrus ruled from the Balkans to North Africa and Central Asia. Subsequently, Iran was invaded by the Macedonians, Arabs, Turks and the Mongolians over the course of its history. During those times, Iran lost much of its territory until a reduced Iran was formed in the nineteenth century CE. Despite the invasions, Iran did not lose its heritage from its previous civilizations, but rather incorporated aspects of the new civilizations into its cultural fabric. Iran has always played an effective role in the natural sciences, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, philosophy and also in mineralogy and gemology. At times, Iran was at the forefront of science and technology, including mineralogy and gemology, which went through stages of development. The first and second stages occurred before and after the introduction of Islam, respectively. More than 30 books were written about minerals and gems during the ancient and Islamic Iranian periods. Those books can be classified into three main groups where the first group included accounts of precious stones, minerals, gems and metals. The second group of books focused on natural history, chemistry and precious stones. The third group of books discussed medicine, pharma-chemistry and medical properties of minerals. The most famous texts were written by early Iranian scientists such as Avicenna, Biruni, Jabir Ibn Hayan, Kandi and Razi. Iran’s role at the forefront of science and technology (including mineralogy and gemology) declined after the collapse of the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736 CE). But recently, during the past 50 years, Iran has made considerable advances in science and technology through education, training and research. This will open a new age of development for Iran in the twenty-first century in science and technology as well as in mineralogy and gemology
Skip Nav Destination
Research Article| October 29 2021
THE HISTORY OF MINERALOGY AND GEMOLOGY IN IRAN
Earth Sciences History (2021) 40 (2): 566–580.
MOHAMMAD YAZDI; THE HISTORY OF MINERALOGY AND GEMOLOGY IN IRAN. Earth Sciences History 1 July 2021; 40 (2): 566–580. doi: https://doi.org/10.17704/1944-6187-40.2.566
Download citation file:
Don't already have an account? Register
You could not be signed in. Please check your email address / username and password and try again.
Could not validate captcha. Please try again.
Sign in via your InstitutionSign in via your Institution
Citing articles via
Warren D. Allmon, Jesús I. Catalá-Gorgues, Rasoul Sorkhabi
OPALIZED WOOD FROM CLOVER CREEK, IDAHO: HOW AN 1895 FOSSIL TREE DISCOVERY BECAME THE STANDARD OF QUALITY FOR WOOD-OPAL IN MINERALOGICAL COLLECTIONS
MIKE VINEY, DAGMAR DIETRICH, JIM MILLS, SHARON CHENEY, MIKE RUMSEY, ROBIN HANSEN