The paper reports on the publication context for the book: Geologia do Brasil Com um Mapa Geológico do Brasil e parte dos países vizinhos [Geology of Brazil. With a Geological Map of Brazil and part of Neighboring Countries] by Avelino de Oliveira and Othon Leonardos, in 1940. This book describes the geological map of the country and of some parts of adjacent South American countries. The cover of the publication makes a curious reference to a ‘Brazilian Commission of Portugal’s Centennials’. This reference and the preface, together with other publications, provide very enlightening context about the mineral and energy sectors during the 1930s, including the efforts of geologists and institutions involved in its preparation, the difficulties during its compilation, and how its publication became possible. This Map is important because it was produced by Brazilian geologists and even today, it is mandatory to consult it, not only for the history of geology, but also for the clarification of research priorities.

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