Laminated bamboo furniture is high in ecological value and low in overall cost, exhibiting broad prospects for industrial development. Studies have been conducted on human visual cognition of wood and textiles but not of glue-laminated bamboo materials. This study employed a subjective questionnaire and eye-tracking technology to explore the effect of the laminated bamboo furniture surface characteristics on human visual cognition. The results indicate that the fixation count and total fixation duration of caramelized glue-laminated bamboo materials were higher than those of natural colors; participants tend to pay more attention to the colors of glue-laminated bamboo surfaces than to their textures. Although no significant differences have been identified between the overall evaluations attributed to various types of glue-laminated bamboo, within specific cognitive dimensions, participants evaluate natural and caramelized colors differently. Natural glue-laminated bamboo furniture is associated with a greater sense of usability and cultural design in participants' visual cognition, whereas caramelized glue-laminated bamboo furniture is associated with a greater sense of beauty. Total fixation duration and fixation count for the surface characteristics of laminated bamboo furniture are positively correlated with participants' subjective visual appraisals. The longer it takes for participants to notice a laminated bamboo furniture product and the more frequently they fix their gaze on it, the more favorable their evaluation of the product is. These research findings provide a reference to designers for the design of laminated bamboo furniture.