The existing forest resource accounting system is limited to the valuation of wood and forest products; the service value of the forest resource ecosystem is not yet included. This study adopts an empirical approach to studying the rationality and influencing factors of compiling a forest resource balance sheet (FRBS). An FRBS can systematically reflect the contribution of forest resources to the economy, ecology, and society in terms of both physical quantity and value quantity. A questionnaire survey was used to collect the data. We found that the determination and measurement of forest resource assets and liabilities and the calculation of the service value of the ecosystem had a supporting effect on the rationality of compiling an FRBS. This study expands the field and scope of forest resource accounting, facilitates the compilation of natural resources and government balance sheets, and presents the practical significance for the theory and practice behind the development of an FRBS.