Dalbergia cochinchinensis can be distinguished from Dalbergia retusa, Dalbergia bariensis, and Dalbergia oliveri quickly using infrared spectrum characteristic peaks as shown in a previous study. To investigate the components corresponding to the infrared characteristic peaks of Dalbergia cochinchinensis, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and butyl alcohol were sequentially used to extract the dispersion liquid of D. cochinchinensis. The petroleum ether extracts were further fractionated by column chromatography, using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to track the characteristic components during separation. FTIR spectra of petroleum ether extractives indicated the presence of aromatic ketones and olefin compounds. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry research showed some main components and gave possible structure. Furthermore, their detailed structures were characterized thorough a nuclear magnetic resonance approach, and then two possible components (3,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-phenylchroman-4-one and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-phenylchroman-4-one) were identified.