With the monetary exchange for hardwood trees and logs changing from log-scale board feet to tons, it is important that bulk density values (also called scaling factors) be developed to aid in determining the value of standing trees and logs. This study included 14 species of hardwoods and a total of 325 trees. Ten species were oak, which were divided into a red oak group (seven species) and a white oak group (three species). The red oak group had an average bulk density of 80.7 lb/ft3, and the white oak group had an average bulk density of 79.2 lb/ft3. A significant difference was found between the groups, as were significant differences between species within each group. Southern red oak (Quercus falcate) had the highest value (83.0 lb/ft3), and white oak (Quercus alba) had the lowest (77.0 lb/ft3). Three hickory types had an average bulk density of 79.4 lb/ft3. Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) had a bulk density of 78.3 lb/ft3.

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Author notes

The authors are, respectively, Professor Emeritus, School of Forest Resources, Univ. of Arkansas at Monticello (pattersond@uamont.edu); Associate Professor, Forest Measurements, College of Natural Resources, Univ. of Wisconsin at Stevens Point (paul.doruska@uwsp.edu); Program Technician, School of Forest Resources, Univ. of Arkansas at Monticello (Hartley@uamont.edu); and Consultant Forester, Madison, West Virginia (matthew.hurd@amforem.biz). This paper was received for publication in February 2011. Article no. 11-00027.