The relationship between intellectuals and the schools constitutes a classical problem, dating, I suppose, from the earliest efforts of the Sophists to reconstruct the curriculum of Periclean Athens. But it is a problem that has changed radically in modern times, as the intellectual community has grown in size,power, and self-consciousness, and as the schools have become increasingly popular professionalized, and bureaucratized. At the outset, one is immediately involved in definitions, since the way the problem is perceived will depend ultimately on how its terms are defined. Shall we, with Seymour Martin Lipset, include as intellectuals "all those who create, distribute, and applyculture," or shall we rather, with Richard Hofstadter, distinguish more precisely between men of intellect, who "examine, ponder, wonder, theorize,imagine," and men of intelligence, who "grasp, manipulate, re-order, and adjust"? The choice will not only determine which men we consider at particular times in history, it will inevitably condition our judgments of these men and of the roles they played. Similarly, shall we define the school in quite specific twentieth-century terms, as a formal institution clearly distinguishable from, say, the church or the museum, or shall we define it more comprehensively to include all the institutions in which continuous, deliberate,systematic instruction takes place? Once again, the choice will be decisive in determining which data bear on the problem and how we treat those data.

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