Does collective bargaining standardize school practices, formalize relationships between principals and teachers, and reduce faculty commitment to meeting the needs of students? Susan Moore Johnson's study of teacher unions in six school districts addresses these questions, describing the variation in enforcement of contract provisions at both district and school levels. She concludes that labor relations among the districts vary in response to and enforcement of specific contract provisions. More importantly, labor relations at the school level vary widely within districts, influenced by such noncontractual factors as administrative leadership, staff allegiance, and student needs.

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