In South Africa, education is one of the social institutions manipulated by the apartheid government to develop and maintain an unequal society. In this provocative article, Es'Kia Mphahlele, a Black South African educator, describes the Blacks' struggle for educational improvement through alternative education. Mphahlele, who was forced into exile for two decades because of the stand he took against inferior education for Blacks, returned home to be part of a struggle for a system of education of which Blacks can take charge. He describes a vision of how alternative education in South Africa can draw from "the souls of people" and pave the way for a transformative and humane educational system for all people in the country.

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